The theory of 16 Types is based on Carl Jung's Theory of Psychological Types, which proposes that there are four primary dimensions among which we can evaluate personality traits.
The benefit of the 16 Types assessment is that it broadly covers the most prominent personality traits. This is particularly helpful because personality traits are relatively consistent across time and situation, and can be easily connected to observable workplace behaviors.
Cloverleaf uses a variant of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, which overcomes the limitations of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment of 16 Types. Most notably, MBTI is based on self-reporting of how one feels and/or thinks, while the Cloverleaf model is based on self-reporting of - observable behaviors. Across several studies, external researchers (i.e., unaffiliated with the assessment entity) illustrate construct validity and reliability for the assessment.
Reliability and Validity4,5,6,7,8,9
The theory underlying DiSC comes from William Marston’s work, which proposes that individuals’ tendencies can be traced to their emotional responses to environmental stressors.
The benefit of the DiSC assessment is that it focuses on (a) how individuals view their environment, and (b) how individuals prefer to influence others within that environment. Along these lines, the DiSC has proven to be particularly helpful in explaining why individuals react and behave in certain ways when interacting with colleagues.
Cloverleaf uses Cleaver Company’s version of the DiSC, which is based on the original theory and assessment of DiSC (i.e., Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness). Cloverleaf has conducted construct validity testing using their database of users. The findings illustrate appropriate inter-item reliability, factor structure, and test-retest reliability.
Reliability and Validity12
The goal of the Enneagram is to illustrate individuals’ preferred or habitual way of dealing with the world. There are nine types within the Enneagram, each of which represents a basic belief about what an individual needs in life for survival and satisfaction, and how it can best be achieved. The theory behind Enneagram has been passed down from several philosophers and academics (e.g., George Gurdjieff, Oscar Ichazo, Claudio Naranjo) and was first presented as a measure by Helen Palmer in 1988.
The Enneagram assessment rank-orders the nine types, allowing individuals to see which tendencies they are most likely to rely upon. The is particularly useful in helping individuals and their colleagues work together because it highlights that there are several different ways to view the world and approach one’s work.
Cloverleaf uses an iteration of the most popular version of the Enneagram assessment, the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI). Several studies to date conducted by external researchers illustrate construct validity and reliability of this version.
Reliability and Validity15,16,17
The Instinctive Drives assessment (also called the I.D. System) was developed by Link-Up! International as a way to gauge the innate behavioral tendencies of individuals. Instincts are similar to traits in that they dictate specific sets of behaviors. However, instincts also address why such behaviors are preferred (i.e., what drives the behavior).
Understanding behavioral drivers heightens self-awareness and open-mindedness towards others. This is particularly helpful in workplace settings because it facilitates empathetic communication, and increases the ability to manage interpersonal conflict.
Upon completing the 32-question assessment (rank-ordering 4 items per question), the system reports whether respondents prefer to “use” or “avoid” four instinctive drives: verify, authenticate, complete, and improvise. In partnership with the University of Western Sydney, Link-Up! International has conducted several studies demonstrating construct validity.
Reliability and Validity20,21
The Gallup organization developed the StrengthsFinder assessment (which outlines 34 unique strengths) after conducting a thematic analysis covering two million interviews. Individuals with specific strengths have a combination of knowledge, skills, and abilities that enable them to consistently provide superior performance in a specific task.
Understanding strengths is helpful because when individuals leverage their strengths they are maximizing their time and energy. Additionally, understanding the strengths of others can increase team productivity because it facilitates conversations regarding strength-task alignment among team members.
Cloverleaf uses the Clifton StrengthsFinder 2.0, of which Gallup has conducted extensive construct validity testing. Several studies conducted by external researchers further demonstrate appropriate psychometric properties of the assessment.
Reliability and Validity24,25,26
Strengthscope LTD developed the Strengthscope assessment as a way to capture intrinsically motivating strengths that lead to higher performance. There are a total of 24 strengths organized across a circumplex that is grounded by two dimensions: internal versus external and task versus people. This 2-by-2 circumplex creates four clusters of strengths: emotional, relational, thinking, execution.
Understanding strengths is helpful because it helps individuals and teams leverage their knowledge, skills, and abilities. Strengthscope builds on this by pinpointing intrinsically motivating strengths. This ensures that individuals are not only working in ways in which they are effective, but in ways that they find energizing and fulfilling.
Upon completing the 186-question assessment (five-point Likert scale), the system highlights the individual’s top seven strengths and cluster themes. In partnership with City, University of London, Strengthscope LTD has conducted a study across more than 10,000 global users demonstrating construct validity and test-retest reliability.
Reliability and Validity28
The VIA was developed by the VIA Institute on Character which uncovered 24 unique character strengths. Character entails the moral qualities of an individual, and strengths entail a combination of knowledge, skills, and abilities that facilitate superior performance in a specific task. Thus, character strengths address how individuals can be their best, authentic selves while contributing towards societal goals.
Understanding character strengths is important because it helps individuals contribute in ways that are organizationally impactful yet personally meaningful. Understanding the character strengths of team members is also important. When individuals are aware of the character strengths of their team members they are more likely to encourage them to leverage their character strengths.
Cloverleaf uses the VIS-IS-R, a 96-item assessment (4 items per strength), which has been validated by VIA as well as external researchers.
Reliability and Validity31,32,33
Cloverleaf developed the Energy Rhythm assessment as a way to highlight the energy patterns of individual’s throughout their work day. The theory behind Energy Rhythms draws from physiological and psycho- logical literature on circadian rhythms (i.e., one’s natural sleep-wake cycle) and chronotypes (i.e., behavior- al implications of circadian rhythms).
The assessment produces three Energy Rhythm types: starters (morning type), pacers (mid-day type), and anchors (evening type). This information is useful because it helps individuals decide what type of task to pursue (e.g., deep thinking, brainstorming) given the timing of when they are likely to experience a peak, trough, or recovery in their energy.
Cloverleaf has conducted construct validity testing of the Energy Rhythm assessment. The findings illustrate appropriate inter-item reliability, factor structure, and convergent/divergent validity for a seven-item scale.
Reliability and Validity37
There's more to learn about applying what you've learned, so check out our blog or other articles about the TEAM Dashboard.
For more help with Cloverleaf, view related help articles:
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37 Contact Cloverleaf at https://cloverleaf.me/ for more information.There's more to learn about applying what you've learned, so check out our blog or other articles about the TEAM Dashboard.